The Two People We're All Related To

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  • Published: 24 October 2018
  • Check out Two Cents: http://office-2016.info/channel/UCL8w_A8p8P1HWI3k6PR5Z6w

    Due to an odd quirk of genetics and some unique evolutionary circumstances, two humans who lived at different times in the distant past managed to pass on a very small fraction of their genomes to you. And to me. To all of us.

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: office-2016.info/user/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References:
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334592/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267120/
    pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f4ee/6bfac21f39ac51fc306ba3100c2ebd2ee61a.pdf
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892150/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4032117/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500864/
    haplogroup-a.com/Ancient-Root-AJHG2013.pdf
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418327/
    ase.tufts.edu/chemistry/hhmi/documents/Protocols/Maternal%20Ancestry_Introduction_Reworked_Aug_25_2011.pdf
    pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/resources/clarifications/MitochondrialEve.html
    cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0960-9822%2813%2900215-7
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367903/
    cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0002-9297%2809%2900163-3
    newscientist.com/article/mg22429904-500-found-closest-link-to-eve-our-universal-ancestor/
    smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/no-mitochondrial-eve-not-first-female-species-180959593/
    nature.com/news/genetic-adam-and-eve-did-not-live-too-far-apart-in-time-1.13478
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525259/
    hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome
    pnas.org/content/106/38/16018
    nature.com/articles/jhg2012154
    academic.oup.com/mbe/article/27/8/1833/988857
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  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 2 498

  • Billiee. Avoocadoo.Eilish

    I'm..I'm related to my crush?

    • Dang Talon
      Dang Talon  9 hours back

      Alex and Steve

      • Rey Gomez
        Rey Gomez  17 hours back

        So this proves that we are all one race no matter what color u ARE...Now if you are a reptilian than you are not my family.

        • Aaron J
          Aaron J  17 hours back

          hey y'all. I'm one of them Kardashians then

          • Grislock
            Grislock  18 hours back

            THE MIGHTY MIGHTY MITOCHONDRIA

            • Im Morky
              Im Morky  19 hours back

              Transgenders have left the chat*

              • Duffel Bag
                Duffel Bag  19 hours back

                soo..am i allowed to say the N word now

                • reuben carrick
                  reuben carrick  20 hours back

                  I can't concentrate on the content of the video due to the man's wrinkled shirt

                  • Gabe X babe
                    Gabe X babe  22 hours back

                    Sweet home Alabama!!!

                    • Dylan L
                      Dylan L  22 hours back

                      L3 or bust .
                      Wheel clan ftw

                      • Dylan L
                        Dylan L  22 hours back

                        Every race is closely related to each other compared too each groups within Africa.

                        • Sergio Alcantara
                          Sergio Alcantara  1 days back

                          We all come from the same two people, yet we all hate each other. How stupid is that? Lol.

                          • Shashank Kumar
                            Shashank Kumar  1 days back

                            The nation state is an artificial construct. We are all one big family that inhabits the entire Earth.

                            • Gale Mara
                              Gale Mara  1 days back

                              When you realize that a distant cousin died today, ☹️
                              But a new one is born

                              • Anke
                                Anke  2 days back

                                Can you make a video about the domestication of our evolutionary besties: dogs?

                                • Nikki Berry
                                  Nikki Berry  2 days back

                                  So, the saying "we're more alike than we are different" has more than 1 meaning.

                                  • Hand Over
                                    Hand Over  2 days back

                                    1 like = 1 nice head massage for grandma in heaven

                                    • Fabian Lopez
                                      Fabian Lopez  2 days back

                                      Guess I’m in the clear from sleeping with my cousin

                                      • Just Looking
                                        Just Looking  2 days back

                                        There was no quirk. 30,000 yrs ago there was an unknown catastrophe & the human pop. Dropped to 3,000 on entire planet.

                                        • Pauline Larson
                                          Pauline Larson  1 days back

                                          Maybe it was when Earth stopped and began revolving in the opposite direction. Seem to remember a geology program about the magnetic field alignment, suggesting that having happened at least once.

                                      • robert charlton
                                        robert charlton  2 days back

                                        we all have mitochondria? is there a cure?

                                        • RobinThe Wolf
                                          RobinThe Wolf  2 days back

                                          So no matter who we marry, we are all incestual? That’s not fun, but what is fun is that I am some how related to Keanu Reeves and I think that’s beautiful.

                                          • Your Mum
                                            Your Mum  2 days back

                                            Sooooo your telling me only 1 person, some 200k years ago, was the only person with Mitochondria

                                            • Emre Insel
                                              Emre Insel  2 days back

                                              Thank you for this great video

                                              • Stephen Reilly
                                                Stephen Reilly  2 days back

                                                Crazy that we have a book that already knew all of this.

                                                • AndyGinterBlues
                                                  AndyGinterBlues  3 days back

                                                  I'm pretty sure that my grams was friends with that woman.

                                                  • patriot patriot
                                                    patriot patriot  3 days back

                                                    Does this mean I'm my own grandpa?

                                                    • LS Jansen
                                                      LS Jansen  3 days back

                                                      This video is already out of date. It's been proven that men can pass down mitochondrial DNA.

                                                      • ashley thebest
                                                        ashley thebest  3 days back

                                                        I believe the mitchondrial dna passed down the past 200,000 years might allow all of us to have some form of telepathic abilities.

                                                        • Jackmax 2011
                                                          Jackmax 2011  4 days back

                                                          That still doesn’t answer why we got limit edition skin and others only got the regular kind wtf?!?

                                                          • Mahima Romanoffsallymw

                                                            Imagine going to the future and realizing you had billions of children with a stranger you never met😬

                                                            • Kanley West
                                                              Kanley West  4 days back

                                                              Short answer, we are all related to Genghis Khan. Congratulations internet, I win.

                                                            • Te’ Douglas
                                                              Te’ Douglas  4 days back

                                                              You go by father

                                                              • Michael Holloway
                                                                Michael Holloway  4 days back

                                                                Human evolution (all evolution) is getting messier the more it's studied. I'd say complex, but this doesn't convey the right amount of random chaos. Right now trees are showing Homo heidelbergensis as the trunk for sapiens, neanderthals, and denisonans. If that's true all could carry the same Y chromosome lineage despite the interbreeding, but how likely is this when interbreeding and DNA transfer is constantly being discovered across what we define as "species". Genetic drift lineage assumes just one Y chromosome ancestor, but there's reason to doubt that. Multiple Y chromosomes in a messier Homo ancestry would have been highly related, but they wouldn't trace back to a single individual. The loss of this assumption would throw off age calculations.

                                                                • ImsoK00l YT
                                                                  ImsoK00l YT  5 days back

                                                                  Omg we are all related to xxxtentacion

                                                                  • Don G
                                                                    Don G  5 days back

                                                                    My mother was the best person I have even known! My small way of honoring her!

                                                                    • Alexander
                                                                      Alexander  6 days back

                                                                      There is no proof for the Y-chromosome haplogroups leading back to one single ancestor. This is actually not proven and doesn't have near the same empirical data as the mithocondrial Eve, might want to mention this is a theory that basically only exists because of that's how it works with your maternal line. There is very very little proof of (almost) any macro haplogroups on your Y-dna side.

                                                                      Could also take up how one Australian aboriginal had an MTdna group that ain't related to any other recorded.

                                                                      • Charles Baylor
                                                                        Charles Baylor  2 hours back

                                                                        @Alexander What did you really confirm though? Give me a link to a scientific journal or article, talking about the Australian Aboriginal that doesn't link back to africa. It's not that I don't believe you but I enjoy looking at DNA studies and if you have found one I haven't seen yet, I would like to study it for myself.

                                                                      • Alexander
                                                                        Alexander  5 hours back

                                                                        @Charles Baylor That is one example of the MTdna, that wasn't really the point with my comment. It still technically confirms that not all modern Homo Sapiens can track their ancestry, one individual or not. We barely have ANY samples from that period to begin with, so the fact that there even is one is quite massive AND important to note in a video like this, which it don't.

                                                                        It is ALWAYS relevant to show different arguments of the scientific theory you are providing information too. While this isn't an academic work in itself, it definitely deals WITH academic topics, and should be treated as such.

                                                                      • Charles Baylor
                                                                        Charles Baylor  14 hours back

                                                                        That's one person out of how many that are linked back to africa?

                                                                    • Uncertain boy
                                                                      Uncertain boy  7 days back

                                                                      This video proves why lesbians were more accepted than gays lol

                                                                      • LucasBurgos31
                                                                        LucasBurgos31  1 weeks back

                                                                        Cool Ted Bundy’s my cousin 😀

                                                                        • barely inc.
                                                                          barely inc.  1 weeks back

                                                                          Y’all... we banging our cousins 😩

                                                                          • jack thunderbolt
                                                                            jack thunderbolt  1 weeks back

                                                                            how about a video about early human hunting?

                                                                            • ernst neumann
                                                                              ernst neumann  2 weeks back

                                                                              i did hear that mens genetic is only 10% today.all other men died out in a Kind of Holocaust.we do not know what happend but a lot of genetic flexibility is lost in todays world.nobody knows how it was organized,men are all more the same .very strange.

                                                                            • Josh Castro
                                                                              Josh Castro  2 weeks back

                                                                              i only want sons

                                                                              • Catherine Alces
                                                                                Catherine Alces  2 weeks back

                                                                                hate to be nitpicky, but your mitochondrial lineage is due to biological *sex*, not gender

                                                                                • Veronica Logotheti
                                                                                  Veronica Logotheti  2 weeks back

                                                                                  Genghis khan had a daughter that didnt marry

                                                                                  • Veronica Logotheti
                                                                                    Veronica Logotheti  2 weeks back

                                                                                    Thank you

                                                                                    • Samantha Koerntgen
                                                                                      Samantha Koerntgen  2 weeks back

                                                                                      🤮🤮🤮🤮🤮🤮 thanks

                                                                                      • wildcatter63
                                                                                        wildcatter63  2 weeks back

                                                                                        Mitochondrial DNA is now known to have incursions/recombinations from the fathers DNA approximately every 5000 births

                                                                                        • Advait Talekar
                                                                                          Advait Talekar  2 weeks back

                                                                                          No!!! We are half cylons!!!!