The Two People We're All Related To

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  • Published: 24 October 2018
  • Check out Two Cents: http://office-2016.info/channel/UCL8w_A8p8P1HWI3k6PR5Z6w

    Due to an odd quirk of genetics and some unique evolutionary circumstances, two humans who lived at different times in the distant past managed to pass on a very small fraction of their genomes to you. And to me. To all of us.

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: office-2016.info/user/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References:
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334592/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267120/
    pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f4ee/6bfac21f39ac51fc306ba3100c2ebd2ee61a.pdf
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892150/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4032117/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500864/
    haplogroup-a.com/Ancient-Root-AJHG2013.pdf
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418327/
    ase.tufts.edu/chemistry/hhmi/documents/Protocols/Maternal%20Ancestry_Introduction_Reworked_Aug_25_2011.pdf
    pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/resources/clarifications/MitochondrialEve.html
    cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0960-9822%2813%2900215-7
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367903/
    cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0002-9297%2809%2900163-3
    newscientist.com/article/mg22429904-500-found-closest-link-to-eve-our-universal-ancestor/
    smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/no-mitochondrial-eve-not-first-female-species-180959593/
    nature.com/news/genetic-adam-and-eve-did-not-live-too-far-apart-in-time-1.13478
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525259/
    hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome
    pnas.org/content/106/38/16018
    nature.com/articles/jhg2012154
    academic.oup.com/mbe/article/27/8/1833/988857
    nature.com/articles/325031a0
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694979/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4381518/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086175
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 2 476

  • Nikki Berry
    Nikki Berry  17 minutes back

    So, the saying "we're more alike than we are different" has more than 1 meaning.

    • Hand Over
      Hand Over  32 minutes back

      1 like = 1 nice head massage for grandma in heaven

      • Fabian Lopez
        Fabian Lopez  2 hours back

        Guess I’m in the clear from sleeping with my cousin

        • Just Looking
          Just Looking  3 hours back

          There was no quirk. 30,000 yrs ago there was an unknown catastrophe & the human pop. Dropped to 3,000 on entire planet.

          • robert charlton
            robert charlton  4 hours back

            we all have mitochondria? is there a cure?

            • RobinThe Wolf
              RobinThe Wolf  8 hours back

              So no matter who we marry, we are all incestual? That’s not fun, but what is fun is that I am some how related to Keanu Reeves and I think that’s beautiful.

              • Your Mum
                Your Mum  11 hours back

                Sooooo your telling me only 1 person, some 200k years ago, was the only person with Mitochondria

                • Emre Insel
                  Emre Insel  12 hours back

                  Thank you for this great video

                  • Stephen Reilly
                    Stephen Reilly  14 hours back

                    Crazy that we have a book that already knew all of this.

                    • AndyGinterBlues
                      AndyGinterBlues  1 days back

                      I'm pretty sure that my grams was friends with that woman.

                      • patriot patriot
                        patriot patriot  1 days back

                        Does this mean I'm my own grandpa?

                        • LS Jansen
                          LS Jansen  1 days back

                          This video is already out of date. It's been proven that men can pass down mitochondrial DNA.

                          • ashley thebest
                            ashley thebest  2 days back

                            I believe the mitchondrial dna passed down the past 200,000 years might allow all of us to have some form of telepathic abilities.

                            • Jackmax 2011
                              Jackmax 2011  2 days back

                              That still doesn’t answer why we got limit edition skin and others only got the regular kind wtf?!?

                              • Mahima Romanoffsallymw

                                Imagine going to the future and realizing you had billions of children with a stranger you never met😬

                                • Kanley West
                                  Kanley West  2 days back

                                  Short answer, we are all related to Genghis Khan. Congratulations internet, I win.

                                • Te’ Douglas
                                  Te’ Douglas  3 days back

                                  You go by father

                                  • Michael Holloway
                                    Michael Holloway  3 days back

                                    Human evolution (all evolution) is getting messier the more it's studied. I'd say complex, but this doesn't convey the right amount of random chaos. Right now trees are showing Homo heidelbergensis as the trunk for sapiens, neanderthals, and denisonans. If that's true all could carry the same Y chromosome lineage despite the interbreeding, but how likely is this when interbreeding and DNA transfer is constantly being discovered across what we define as "species". Genetic drift lineage assumes just one Y chromosome ancestor, but there's reason to doubt that. Multiple Y chromosomes in a messier Homo ancestry would have been highly related, but they wouldn't trace back to a single individual. The loss of this assumption would throw off age calculations.

                                    • ImsoK00l YT
                                      ImsoK00l YT  4 days back

                                      Omg we are all related to xxxtentacion

                                      • Don G
                                        Don G  4 days back

                                        My mother was the best person I have even known! My small way of honoring her!

                                        • Alexander
                                          Alexander  4 days back

                                          There is no proof for the Y-chromosome haplogroups leading back to one single ancestor. This is actually not proven and doesn't have near the same empirical data as the mithocondrial Eve, might want to mention this is a theory that basically only exists because of that's how it works with your maternal line. There is very very little proof of (almost) any macro haplogroups on your Y-dna side.

                                          Could also take up how one Australian aboriginal had an MTdna group that ain't related to any other recorded.

                                          • Uncertain boy
                                            Uncertain boy  5 days back

                                            This video proves why lesbians were more accepted than gays lol

                                            • LucasBurgos31
                                              LucasBurgos31  6 days back

                                              Cool Ted Bundy’s my cousin 😀

                                              • barely inc.
                                                barely inc.  1 weeks back

                                                Y’all... we banging our cousins 😩

                                                • jack thunderbolt
                                                  jack thunderbolt  1 weeks back

                                                  how about a video about early human hunting?

                                                  • ernst neumann
                                                    ernst neumann  1 weeks back

                                                    i did hear that mens genetic is only 10% today.all other men died out in a Kind of Holocaust.we do not know what happend but a lot of genetic flexibility is lost in todays world.nobody knows how it was organized,men are all more the same .very strange.

                                                  • Josh Castro
                                                    Josh Castro  2 weeks back

                                                    i only want sons

                                                    • Catherine Alces
                                                      Catherine Alces  2 weeks back

                                                      hate to be nitpicky, but your mitochondrial lineage is due to biological *sex*, not gender

                                                      • Veronica Logotheti
                                                        Veronica Logotheti  2 weeks back

                                                        Genghis khan had a daughter that didnt marry

                                                        • Veronica Logotheti
                                                          Veronica Logotheti  2 weeks back

                                                          Thank you

                                                          • Samantha Koerntgen
                                                            Samantha Koerntgen  2 weeks back

                                                            🤮🤮🤮🤮🤮🤮 thanks

                                                            • wildcatter63
                                                              wildcatter63  2 weeks back

                                                              Mitochondrial DNA is now known to have incursions/recombinations from the fathers DNA approximately every 5000 births

                                                              • Advait Talekar
                                                                Advait Talekar  2 weeks back

                                                                No!!! We are half cylons!!!!

                                                                • Rock Brentwood
                                                                  Rock Brentwood  2 weeks back

                                                                  The two people who all are *believed* to be related to. There is no complete DNA database; and it only takes one still-existing survivor of a sibling-branch to refute the claim.

                                                                  • Gustavo Gonzalez
                                                                    Gustavo Gonzalez  2 weeks back

                                                                    We’re all related but some of us want to scam others out of money by charging family for DNA tests?

                                                                    • John DC
                                                                      John DC  2 weeks back

                                                                      People wanna know how related they are to everyone else though. They aren't going to settle with "oh yes uh, the tests are back and it seems that every other human and to an extent, every other living creature is related to you. Who knew"

                                                                  • Gustavo Gonzalez
                                                                    Gustavo Gonzalez  2 weeks back

                                                                    Lilo and Stitch are correct.

                                                                    • josiah88
                                                                      josiah88  2 weeks back

                                                                      So we now know we all came from two people....but.....it CAN’T have any relationship to the biblical story of creation because???? That would just sound way to biblical I guess

                                                                      • John DC
                                                                        John DC  2 weeks back

                                                                        Because the genetic analysis states that they came from 2 completely different time periods.

                                                                        If it is somehow related to bibilical creation accounts, the writers of Genesis seems to be pretty vague with their statements. Almost like it's coincidental.

                                                                    • hyejoogf
                                                                      hyejoogf  3 weeks back

                                                                      so my gf is my sister? wow lmao

                                                                      • Jasmine_ Rice
                                                                        Jasmine_ Rice  3 weeks back

                                                                        “The two people we’re all related to.”
                                                                        Ah yes,our parents.

                                                                        • Andrew Blucher
                                                                          Andrew Blucher  3 weeks back

                                                                          Is all PBS Eons work this sloppy?
                                                                          Describing DNA as holding information is fine, but then calling mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome *bits* of information is completely *wrong*. A bit is the smallest unit of information. Any chunk of DNA holds many, many bits. If you are going to talk about a scientific concept then at least get the basics right.
                                                                          This sloppy language continues.
                                                                          If you want to teach science then the least you can do is get it right.

                                                                          • Andrea
                                                                            Andrea  3 weeks back

                                                                            Technically, earth is a venue for a family reunion that we have been attending our whole lives, and if you travel to space you are leaving that family reunion.

                                                                            • AN ANIMATOR
                                                                              AN ANIMATOR  3 weeks back

                                                                              Oh I get it...

                                                                              *Where the hells my 7 1/2 billion birthday presents 😠*

                                                                              • 💥 Roman boi 💥
                                                                                💥 Roman boi 💥  1 days back

                                                                                You were the least favorite out of all 7 billion of us, bet you feel loved 😂

                                                                            • Chris Smith
                                                                              Chris Smith  3 weeks back

                                                                              Maybe first modern humans?

                                                                              • TheUltimateNatural
                                                                                TheUltimateNatural  6 days back

                                                                                No you misunderstand. It doesn't mean those are the first modern humans it just means the lineages of other humans or the other humans themselves didn't survive. IT could also mean that other Mitochondria DNA was replaced.

                                                                            • Roger Kreil
                                                                              Roger Kreil  3 weeks back

                                                                              Crazy! 😛

                                                                              • albert miller
                                                                                albert miller  3 weeks back

                                                                                This guy talks so slow that I fell asleep.

                                                                                • Gary_t
                                                                                  Gary_t  3 weeks back

                                                                                  That that mean the whole world is Alabama. All having $3x with are family

                                                                                  • no one
                                                                                    no one  4 weeks back

                                                                                    Distant relatives

                                                                                    • Carmen Freeman
                                                                                      Carmen Freeman  4 weeks back

                                                                                      Wow.